Category Archives: RAZIA SULTAN (The First Women Ruler of Delhi) :-

RAZIA SULTAN (The First Women Ruler of Delhi) :-

RAZIA SULTAN (The First Women Ruler of Delhi) :-

BIRTH: 1205
YEARS OF RULING: 1236- 1240

INTRODUCTION:
Raziya al-Din (1205 in Budaun – October 13, 1240), throne name Jalâlat ud-Dîn Raziyâ, usually referred to in history as Razia Sultana, was the Sultan of Delhi in India from 1236 to May 1240. Like some other Muslim princesses of the time, she was trained to lead armies and administer kingdoms if necessary.She was the first ‪#‎MuslimFemaleRuler & only women to occupy the throne of Delhi.Raziya (also called Raziyya) succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last female ruler of Delhi Sultanate. (According to one source, Iltumish’s eldest son had initially been groomed as his successor, but had died prematurely.) But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish’s appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on Wednesday 30 April 1236, Razia’s brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead.

Ruknuddin’s reign was short. With Iltutmish’s widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated[4] after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi.

She “abandoned the veil and adopted masculine attire.” She was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a monarch. According to Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was “sagacious, just, beneficient, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endoweed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king. She is also famous for her romantic involvement and legends with her lover and later turned husband, Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia “[5]. She refused to be addressed as Sultana because it meant “wife or consort of a Sultan”. She would answer only to the title “Sultan.” She succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. She was talented, wise, brave, excellent administrator, and a great warrior that attracted her father which resulted that she became the next sultan of Slave dynasty. Though her reign was just for three years, her bravery, her struggle and her undaunted spirit has been preserved in the treasures of history. Razia Sultan’s Tomb in Delhi is one of those places, which relives the unthwarted spirit of the brave woman who ruled Delhi once and for all.

GREAT FATHER OF RAZIA:
Iltutmish (1210-1236) — a doting father, who ordered grand celebrations to welcome the birth of his first daughter after many sons. He took personal interest in her education and training and by the time she turned 13, Razia was acknowledged as an accomplished archer and horse rider who would frequently accompany her father in his military expeditions.
Words of Iltumish:
“This daughter of mine is better than many sons.”
Reason behind being the next sultan of Slave dynasty-
Once when Iltutmish was busy with the siege of the Gwalior fort, he had entrusted the government in Delhi to Razia, and on his return was so impressed with her performance that he decided to appoint her as his successor.

AFTER DEATH OF FATHER:
Raziya (also called Raziyya) succeeded her father Shams-ud-din Iltutmish to the Sultanate of Delhi in 1236. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last female ruler of Delhi Sultanate. (According to one source, Iltumish’s eldest son had initially been groomed as his successor, but had died prematurely.) But the Muslim nobility had no intention of acceding to Iltutmish’s appointment of a woman as heir, and after the sultan died on Wednesday 30 April 1236, Razia’s brother, Rukn ud din Firuz, was elevated to the throne instead.

Ruknuddin’s reign was short. With Iltutmish’s widow Shah Turkaan for all practical purposes running the government, Ruknuddin abandoned himself to the pursuit of personal pleasure and debauchery, to the outrage of the citizenry. On November 9, 1236, both Ruknuddin and his mother Shah Turkaan were assassinated[4] after only six months in power. With reluctance, the nobility agreed to allow Razia to reign as Sultan of Delhi.

WORK OF RAZIA SULTAN:
Being an efficient ruler Razia Sultana set up proper and complete law and order in her in his empire. She tried to improve the infrastructure of the country by encouraging trade, building roads, digging wells. And also she established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient philosophers along with the Quran and the traditions of Muhammad. Hindu works in the sciences, philosophy, astronomy, and literature were reportedly studied in schools and colleges. She contributed even in the field of art and culture and encouraged poets, painters and musicians.She “abandoned the veil and adopted masculine attire.” She was an efficient ruler and possessed all the qualities of a monarch. According to Minhaj-i-Siraj, she was “sagacious, just, beneficient, the patron of the learned, a dispenser of justice, the cherisher of her subjects, and of warlike talent, and endoweed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications necessary for a king. She is also famous for her romantic involvement and legends with her lover and later turned husband, Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia ”

FALLING IN LOVE:
No other thing can stop Razia except love. The reason behind end of her was her unacceptable love. Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut, an African Siddi slave turned nobleman who was a close confidante to her and was speculated to be her lover. Though it happened behind many veils and doors, their relationship was no secret in the Delhi court.
Malik Ikhtiar-ud-din Altunia, the governor of Bhatinda, was against such relationship of Razia. The story goes that Altunia and Raziya were childhood friends. As they grew up together, he fell in love with Raziya and the rebellion was simply a way of getting back Raziya.
Tragedy followed swiftly. Yaqut was murdered and Altunia imprisoned Raziya.

End of Razia:
When she was trying to curb a rebellion against her by the Turkish Governor of Batinda, the Turkish nobles who were against such female throne, took advantage of her absence at Delhi and dethroned her. Her brother Bahram was crowned.
To save her own head, Raziya sensibly decided to marry Altunia, the governor of Batinda and marched towards Delhi with her husband. On October 13, 1240, she was defeated by Bahram and the unfortunate couple was put to death the very next day.

Legacy:

Razia is said to have pointed out that the spirit of religion was more important than its parts, and that even the Islamic prophet Muhammad spoke against overburdening the non-Muslims. On another occasion, she reportedly tried to appoint an Indian Muslim convert from Hinduism to an official position but again ran into opposition from the nobles.

Razia was reportedly devoted to the cause of her empire and to her subjects. There is no record that she made any attempt to remain aloof from her subjects, rather it appears she preferred to mingle among them.

Razia established schools, academies, centers for research, and public libraries that included the works of ancient philosophers along with the Qur’an and the traditions of Muhammad. Hindu works in the sciences, philosophy, astronomy, and literature were reportedly studied in schools and colleges.

 

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