Monthly Archives: November 2013

The Aging Eyes

Click Here If You Can't See ImageEven a slight deterioration of any of your senses can be scary. Not only can it interfere with your safety and your ability to understand your surroundings, but also it can have a huge impact on your overall comfort and independence.

Still, as you age, some decline in your senses is expected. Eyesight is often one of the first senses affected by aging.

But you can minimize the impact of age-related vision loss on daily life, boost eye health in general, and reduce disease risk by monitoring vision changes, identifying problems, creating an eye-friendly environment, and adjusting your lifestyle habits and dietary choices.

How’s Your Vision?

Your first step in protecting your eyes is to distinguish between vision changes that are due to normal aging processes and vision changes that may be signs of disease. Only a doctor can diagnose eye disease, so if you haven’t been keeping a regular schedule of checkups, consider making an appointment today.

In the meantime, the quick test at the end if this article is a test many eye specialists give to help determine whether a person may be exhibiting signs of eye disease.

Normal Age-Related Vision Changes

Not all declines in vision quality are the result of disease; certain anatomical changes naturally occur as the eyes age.

The various internal and external structures of the eyes, which all work together to help people see clearly at various distances and under different lighting conditions, begin to wear down as people get older.

Common age-related vision complaints include:

  • “I can’t see as clearly as I used to.”
  • “I have difficulty seeing objects close up.”
  • “Colors don’t seem as vivid.”
  • “It’s getting more difficult to see in the dark.”
  • “I’m less able to adapt to glare.”
  • “I need more light to see.”

The most significant age-related changes seem to occur in the lens and the pupil; these account for the majority of vision limitations people experience as they get older. The extent to which these changes affect vision varies a bit with each person. But regardless of the degree to which these changes affect you, you can compensate for them and help ensure they don’t endanger your safety or make it difficult for you to enjoy life.

Age-Related Eye Change #1

The pupil becomes smaller and less responsive to variations in light.

Impact: Because the pupil controls the amount of light that reaches the retina, age-related changes to the pupil may affect vision in many ways. First, as the pupil decreases in diameter, seeing well in dim light becomes harder. In addition, the less able the pupil is to adjust to varying light conditions, the less tolerable glare becomes and the more difficult it is to adapt from darkness to bright light or vice versa. This means as you get older, you may need more time to adjust to changing levels of illumination, such as going from bright sunshine into a dimly lit room or restaurant.

Compensation: Proper illumination can compensate for many of the changes in your pupil as you age. Try these illumination techniques:

  • Increase the amount of ambient light throughout your home.
  • Use individual lights or task lighting for specific tasks. Studies show that for specific tasks, the average 60-year-old person needs at least three times the amount of light compared with the average 20-year-old.
  • Use timed lighting that switches on and off at set times of the day to ensure consistent ambient lighting.
  • Install motion-sensor lights in your home that turn on automatically when you enter a room.
  • Avoid bare bulbs, clear shades, and chandeliers without shades; these produce glare that can be disorienting and uncomfortable.
  • Cover shiny, highly polished surfaces in the home or work areas with cloth or rugs to reduce glare.

Age-Related Eye Change #2

The lens of the eye begins to lose elasticity.

Impact: In the same way that losing flexibility in tendons and muscles makes it more difficult for the body to move, losing lens elasticity also makes it harder for the lens to bend in order to focus on closely held objects. This loss of focusing power, or lens accommodation, is known as presbyopia.

Compensation: Investing in certain sight aids can help compensate for losses in up-close vision. Try these sight aids if you’re having trouble seeing close up:

  • See your eye specialist regarding corrective devices such as reading glasses, bifocals, trifocals, progressive lenses (no lines), or possibly contact lenses to help you correctly see objects at close proximity.
  • Have your eyes rechecked and reading lenses adjusted every 2 or 3 years; changes in lens elasticity typically occur progressively between the ages of 45 and 65.
  • Shine additional light on close work materials to enhance your near vision; lights with adjustable necks are best for directly targeting work.
  • Consider simple, over-the-counter reading glasses for up-close work if you do not need corrective lenses to see distances. The typical range of magnification needed is from +1.00 to + 3.00. Choose a weaker glass for computer work or a stronger glass for reading.

Researchers are studying new surgical interventions and devices that could restore at least some amount of near vision. However, these techniques are experimental, and given the tendency of the eye structure to constantly change, the long-term success of such interventions is unknown.

Age-Related Eye Change #3

The lens of the eye gradually yellows with age.

Impact: The yellowing of the eye lens affects color perception. For example, the yellowing lens tends to absorb and scatter blue light, making it difficult to see differences in shades of blue, green, and violet. Colors may seem duller, and contrasts between colors will be less noticeable. This may cause confusion when picking out clothes or performing other tasks that require color perception. It also may become difficult to tell where an object ends and its background begins, making it difficult to see curbs or steps, for example.
Compensation: A few specific adjustments to lighting and color choices should help alleviate the effects of minor lens yellowing. Try this:

  • Choose halogen or fluorescent bulbs specifically designed to improve color rendering. Bulbs with a color-rendering index (CRI) above 80 may best help older eyes with color definition.
  • Use warm contrasting colors, such as yellow, orange, and red, in your home to improve your ability to tell where things are and make it easier to perform daily activities.
  • Put colored tape on the edge of steps to help make them easier to navigate.

Eventually, the underlying process that causes lens yellowing may lead to cataracts. Surgical procedures are available for people whose degree of vision impairment due to cataracts is severe enough to interfere with safety or quality of life.

Give Your Eyes a Boost

Creating an eye-friendly environment is only the beginning of boosting your vision. Studies show that certain lifestyle habits and dietary choices may help protect the lens of the eye and reduce the risk of certain lens conditions that diminish sight.

For example, a study published in the American Journal of Nutrition reveals that a diet rich in vitamin C and foods containing plant pigments, or carotenoids, may help protect the lens of the eye and reduce the risk of cataracts. A lack of these nutrients appears to speed cross-linking, a process in which proteins in the lens form unwanted links or bonds, making the lens thicker, more rigid, scattering even more light than it would otherwise.

Carotenoids exhibit antioxidant properties. Examples include beta carotene, lycopene, and lutein. There is no recommended daily allowance for carotenoids, but you can get your fill by eating lots of produce. Carotenoid-rich foods include sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, spinach, tomatoes, kale, and mangoes. Aim for four servings of fruit and five servings of vegetables per day to help ensure you get the nutrients you need to maximize your eye health.

In addition to certain nutritional deficits, other lifestyle choices may speed up cross-linking and put lens health at risk. These include smoking and excessive exposure to UV rays from the sun.

What’s Not a Normal Part of Aging

As you get older, it is very important to have regular eye examinations. Some eye changes may signal something more serious than age-related changes, such as an eye disease that needs medical treatment. Even if you are not experiencing eye symptoms, regular checkups are a must. Many eye diseases do not have warning symptoms but could be minimized or slowed with proper treatment. For example, although eye diseases such as macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachment are often painless and the onset is gradual, they can greatly impair vision if not promptly treated.

During a doctor appointment, if you have or are suspected of having disorders affecting the retina, or if you are at risk for other eye diseases such as glaucoma, you may be given an Amsler eye test.

Example Amsler Eye Test

Give your eyes a quick check using the Amsler Grid instructions below. This grid is one type of test used by eye-care specialists to identify vision changes that affect central vision — the vision used for reading and other close-detail work. The Amsler Grid is a standard test for detecting defects in the eye’s retina. Remember, this is a simulation of the actual test. Only an eye specialist can make an accurate diagnosis or rule out underlying disease.

  1. Print out a paper version of the grid.
  2. In a well-lit room, hold the grid at normal reading distance (14 18 inches away). If you normally wear glasses for reading, be sure to wear them.
  3. Cover one eye and look at the box.
  4. Focus on the dot in the center of the grid.
  5. Note how the lines and squares appear.
  6. Which of the following most closely resembles what you see? (Choose one.)
  • straight, evenly spaced horizontal and vertical lines that intersect to form squares, like graph paper horizontal and vertical lines, similar to graph paper, with larger wavy lines bending outward at the center
  • horizontal and vertical lines, similar to graph paper, with smaller wavy lines bending inward at the center horizontal and vertical lines, similar to graph paper, with lines blurred or distorted toward the center
  1. Repeat the test on the other eye.

What Your Answer Might Mean

If you see straight, evenly spaced horizontal and vertical lines that intersect to form a square, then it is likely that your central vision is normal and healthy. Remember, however, that self-administered test results are not reliable, and this test is not a substitute for an expert medical diagnosis. Be sure to schedule regular eye exams in order to stay on top of any changes in your vision.

If some of the boxes are differently sized or shaped from the others, or if some lines are crooked, wavy, missing, blurry, distorted, or discolored, it may be a sign of a possible disturbance to central vision. See your healthcare provider or eye specialist for advice. Remember, however, that self-administered test results are not reliable. It is likely that any anomalies you see in this self-administered test are simply the result of the test conditions or of some other disturbance in your vision that is minor or temporary. This test is not a substitute for an expert medical diagnosis.

Visual Limitations Can Be Addressed

With age, almost everyone’s vision deteriorates to some degree. Fortunately, there are several ways to lessen the impact of age-related eye changes. Making up for vision losses, no matter how big or small, is very important. If ignored, even mild visual impairment can lead to problems ranging from feelings of depression and social isolation to injuries from falls.

By addressing any age-related vision troubles as they arise and making the necessary adjustments to your surroundings or lifestyle, you should be able to continue enjoying an active, productive, and independent life.

If you have an eye condition that is due to disease, keep in mind there are probably many effective medical treatments available to ease its impact. The key is getting a diagnosis as soon as possible to learn about your options.

 

The eye is the pulse of the soul.

As physicians judge the heart by the pulse,

so we by the eye.

——Lavater. 

Advertisements

Common password Cracking methods :

Common password Cracking methods :

Social Engineering:

Social engineering is when a hacker takes advantage of trusting human beings to get information from them. For example, if the hacker was trying to get the password for a co-workers computer, he could call the co-worker pretending to be from the IT department. Social Engineering is used for different purposes.

Countermeasure:

If somebody tries to get login information or any other sensitive information from you, ask them some questions. Try to find whether the one who is trying to get the info is legit or not.

Shoulder surfing:

This method doesn’t need the usage of hacking knowledge. The hacker would simply attempt to look over your shoulder as you type in your password.

Countermeasure:

Make sure nobody’s looking when you type your login info.

Dumpster Driving:

In this the hacker would simply try to find any slips of paper in which you have written the password.

Countermeasure:

Do not write your passwords or login information anywhere. If you write, keep them somewhere safe.

Guessing:

If yours is a weak password, a hacker could simple guess it by using the information he knows about you.

Guessable passwords:

1. Blank (None). (Most of the websites do not allow blank passwords)

2.The word “password” “passcode” “admin” and their derivatives.

3. The username or login name.

4. The names of their loved ones.

5. Their birthplace or date of birth.

6. A dictionary word in any language.

7. Automobile license plate number.

8. A row of letters in a standard keyboard layout.
Example: asdfghjkl or qwertyuiop etc.

Countermeasure:

Use passwords that are not easily guessable and not found in any dictionary.

Dictionary Attacks:

A dictionary attack is when a text file full of commonly used passwords, or a list of every word from the dictionary is used against a password database. Strong passwords usually aren’t vulnerable to this kind of attack.

Countermeasure:

Use the passwords that are not found in dictionary in any language.

Brute-force Attacks:

Brute-force attacks can crack any password. Brute-force attacks try every possible combination of letters, numbers, and special characters until the right password is found. Brute-force attacks can take a long time. The speed is determined by the speed of the computer running the cracking program and the complexity of the password.

Countermeasure:

Use a password that is complex and long. Brute-force attack may take hundreds, even thousands of years to crack complex and long passwords.

Rainbow Tables:

A Rainbow table is a huge pre-computed list of hashes for every possible combination of characters. A password hash is a password that has gone through a mathematical algorithm (such as md5) that transformed it into something which is not recognizable. A hash is a one way encryption so once a password is hashed there is no way to get the original string from the hashed string. A very common hashing algorithm used as security to store passwords in website databases is MD5. It is almost like a dictionary attack, the only difference is, in rainbow tables attack hashed characters are used as passwords whereas in dictionary attack normal characters are used as passwords. ‘hello’ in md5 is 5d41402abc4b2a76b9719d911017c592

Countermeasure:

Choose a password that is long and complex. Creating tables for passwords that are long takes a very long time and a lot of resources

Phishing:

Many hackers and internet security experts say that Phishing is the most easiest and popular way to get the account details. In a Phishing attack the hacker sends a fake Facebook or any other webpage link to the victim which the hacker has created or downloaded and uploaded it to any free hosting sites like http://www.100mb.com/ or any free webhost. The hacker sends the fake login page link through E-mail or while chatting, etc. When the victim enters the login details, the victim is redirected to the original login page and the hacker gets the victim’s login details.

Countermeasure:

Phishing attacks are very easy to avoid. When you are asked to put your personal information into a website, look up into the URL bar. If for example you are supposed to be on facebook.com and in the URL bar it says something like facebook.something.com or something, the you should know it’s fake.

RATing and Keylogging:

In keylogging or RATing the hacker sends a keylogger server or RAT server to the victim. The keylogger records every key stroke of the victim. When the victim is typing the account details, the keylogger records and sends it to the hacker.

Countermeasures:

It is better to use on-screen keyboards or virtual keyboards while tying the login info or personal info. Install the latest anti-virus software and keep them updated.

Note: There are several other types of password cracking but, these are the most common types.

 

DUTY OF BRAHMINS

DUTY OF BRAHMINS
(A speech by Kanchi Paramacharya)

“If any purpose has been served by listening to me all the while, it is up to you [Brahmins] to take whatever steps you think fit to promote Vedic learning.Every day you must perform ” Brahmayajna” which is one of the five great sacrifices(mahayajnas). The term “Brahma” in ” Brahmayajna” means the Vedas. The power of the mantras must be preserved in us as an eternal reality. It must burn bright like a lamp that is never extinguished. For this reason it is that we perform Brahmayajna. We must offer oblations to the presiding rsi or seer of our Vedic recension. Failing that, the least we can do is perform the Gayatri- japa every day. Gayatri is the
essence of the Vedas, their substance. To qualify to
chant it, you must be initiated into it by a Guru. The Gayatri you thus learn must be mentally repeated at least a thousand times every day. Again, the least you can do – and you must do it- is to chant the mantra atleast ten times morning,noon and dusk. The sun god
is the presiding deity of Gayatri. Sunday, the day of the sun, is a universal holiday. On this day you must get up at 4 in the morning and, after your ablutions, recite the Gayatri a thousand times. This will ensure your well-being as well as of all mankind .

All Brahmins must learn to chant the Purusasukta, the Srisukta, Sri Rudram , etc. I am speaking particularly to office going Brahmins here. Since they will find it difficult to devote themselves fully to Vedic learning they must try to acquire at least a minimum of scriptural knowledge. But it should be creditable if they accomplish something- in the present case learning the Vedas- in the face of difficulties. If you start learning the scripture now you will be able to complete your study in a few years. But you need faith and devotion. The Vedas are a vidya that has come down to us through the millennia. If you study them with determination you are bound to succeed. Haven’ t you seen 50- and 60- year- old people engaged in research in the hope of gaining a Ph.D or some other degree? If you have the will you will have the way to accomplish anything however difficult. There are examples of individuals who at 40 had been totally in the dark about the Vedas but who later learned to chant them with ardour. As a matter of fact there are such men among the office-bearers of our Veda Raksana Nidhi Trust. So
what is needed is faith as well as resoluteness.

Leave aside the question of Brahmins who are in jobs and are middle-aged or older. Whether or not they themselves can chant the Vedas or want to learn to chant them, they must see to it that their sons at least receive instruction in the scriptures.Perhaps the children cannot be sent for a full-time course in the Vedas, but the parents could at least ensure that, after they perform the upanayana of their sons at the age of eight years, the boys are taught the Vedas for one hour every evening for a period of eight years. A Vedic tutor may be engaged on a cooperative basis for all children of a locality or village. This should be of help to the children of poor Brahmins.

Above all, efforts must be made to ensure that the existing Vedic schools that are in bad shape are not forced to close down. These institutions must be reinvigorated and more and more students encouraged to join them. To accomplish this task both teachers and taught must be adequately helped with money.

Let me repeat that Brahmins ought not to be afforded more than the minimum cash or creature comforts. But we see today that there are many lucrative jobs to tempt them. So there is the danger of their not being fully involved in their svadharma (own duty) of learning and teaching the Vedas if they are not kept above their want. We must provide them with certain facilities so that we are not faced with the unfortunate situation in which such Brahmins become more and more scarce. There are new comforts, new avenues of pleasure, not known in the past. It is unrealistic to expect a few Brahmins alone to deny themselves all these and adhere to their svadharma. If we adopt such an attitude the Vedic dharma will suffer. So when some Brahmins are
engaged exclusively in their dharma it is obligatory on our part to help them with money and material. Though they must not be afforded any luxuries, we must provide them with enough comforts so that they are not enticed into other jobs. We have drawn up a number of schemes bearing this in mind.”